President Obama challenged the gathering, which included leaders of nuclear powers including Russia, China, Great Britain and France, to overcome cynicism against the goal of ridding the planet of nuclear arms.
"We harbor no illusions about the difficulty of bringing about a world without nuclear weapons," Obama said, adding that Thursday's meeting signaled a significant step forward in cooperative global action.
The resolution, which was adopted unanimously, calls for tighter controls on nuclear materials to prevent them from being stolen or used for military purposes. It also encourages enforcement of international treaties and U.N. resolutions regarding nuclear non-proliferation, particularly when nations such as Iran and North Korea are in violation.
"The world must stand together," Obama said. "We must demonstrate that international law is not an empty promise."
It was the first Security Council summit chaired by a U.S. president, and only the fifth time that Security Council heads of state have met. Obama led the meeting because the United States holds the revolving presidency of the Security Council in September.